This glossary is adapted from the ones available at at the end of the ebook and print editions of Fourth World and One World. This expanded edition is intended to include every Iamoi term that appears in the series, along with phonetic pronunciation guide for non-English words.
The New Standardized Language used on Iamos during Nadin’s time was adopted after the Progression. This universal language, to be used across the entire planet, uses a standardized suffix format for all nouns. This format is as follows: masculine nouns end in –os; feminine nouns end in –in; plural nouns are gender-neutral and end in –i.
Prior to the Progression, a number of different regional dialects existed on Iamos as on Earth. These are referred to collectively as the old language. Some words from the old language use the Standardized suffixes (such as Elytherios, Katai’ios, etc.), but others do not, as each dialect had its own unique grammatical structure.
Note: All Gs are pronounced with a hard G sound (as in “garden”) rather than a J sound.
- ALOS/ALIN (AH-lohs, AH-leen) – an affectionate term for a child
- ANGUIS (AHN-gwees) – snake
- ANNUAL – birthdate
- CITIDOME – the domed cities where the population of Iamos lives, divided into aboveground and underground areas
- DEGIIM (deh-GEEM) – greetings
- ELYTHERIOS (eh-lee-THER-ee-ohs) – an old language word meaning “freedom”
- ENILIKIN (eh-NEE-lee-keen) – a person’s ninth annual (almost seventeen in Earth years), signifying the transition from childhood to adulthood. A person who is now an adult is called an enilin or enilos.
- ESOTOI (EH-soh-toy) – the middle caste of the Iamoi, who work alongside both patroi and plivoi
- FERRE (FEHR-ruh) – an illegal substance that counteracts the mandatory birth control in the drinking water of the citidomes
- FRAOULOI (FRAH-oo-loy) – known in Isaak’s time as the “spider weed”; a resilient, woody black plant that can grow in almost any condition
- GAMADA (guh-MAH-duh) – a large bird of prey that travels ahead of sandstorms
- GEROI (GEHR-oy) – the governors of a citidome (singular: gerouin [feminine], geros [masculine])
- GEROTUS (GEHR-oh-tuhs) – the united governing body of all geroi on Iamos and Hamos
- GURZA (GER-zuh) – a reptilian beast of burden, similar in size to a horse
- HAMOS (HAH-mohs) – Venus
- HAOI IFAISTEOI (HAH-oy ee-FIE-stay-oy) – “The Three Mountains”; the Iamoi name for the three Martian shield volcanoes we know as Elysium Mons, Hecates Tholus, and Albor Tholus
- IAMOS (ee-AH-mohs) – Mars
- IAMOI (ee-AH-moy) – the name for the people of Iamos as well as their language
- IELAK (ee-EH-lock) – a type of fowl raised for meat
- KALDEROS IFAISTEOS (KAHL-dehr-ohs ee-FIE-stay-ohs) – “Crater Mountain” – the mountain on Mars we know as Aeolis Mons or Mount Sharp
- KATAI’IOS (kuh-TIE-ohs) – an old language word meaning “refuge”
- KELA (KEH-lah) – a type of fowl raised for meat
- KERKOPITH (KEHR-koh-pith) – a long-tailed primate
- KYRIOS/KYRIN (KIR-ee-ohs, KIR-een) – a formal term of address, its closest English equivalent being “lord” or “lady”
- MAETRIN (MAY-treen) – mother
- NARANSHA (nuh-RAHN-shuh) – a type of fruit with spiky pink skin and a soft yellow interior
- NIMENOS/NIMENIN (NEE-meh-nohs, NEE-meh-neen) – new
- NINVIDU (nin-VEE-doo) – the arbiter in a shedosht ritual
- PATROI (PAH-troy) – the most prestigious caste of the Iamoi
- PHADOS (FAH-dohs) – father
- PLIVOI (PLEE-voy) – the lowest caste of the Iamoi, considered to be the “drudges”
- POSTERN – a door, typically in the shape of a stone arch, that allows instant travel across long distances through tesseract technology
- POSTERNKEY – a device that enables operation of a postern. Must be preprogrammed with the destination coordinates before use. Locked for use only by geroi, patroi, and authorized esotoi via a caste medallion.
- THE PROGRESSION – the revolution about sixty Iamoi years ago, during which the geroi took control of the planet
- PSARA (SAH-ruh) – fish
- PSENIK (SEH-nick) – a type of wheat
- S.C.D. – “System Collective Date”; the annual-count system of the Iamoi, dating back to when the System estimates human civilization first arose on Iamos
- SENO (SEH-noh) – a type of grass that can be baled like hay
- SHEDOSHT (sheh-DOHSHT) – an ancient ritual that serves as a cross between a trial and a duel; outlawed in the citidomes after the Progression
- SIOS IFAISTEOS (SEE-ohs ee-FIE-stay-ohs) – “Second Mountain” – the mountain on Mars we know as Elysium Mons
- SIMOS (SEE-mohs) – Earth
- THE SYSTEM – the complex computer system that links all Iamoi’s brainwaves via an antenna inserted into the ear canal, called an earpiece
- THALASH’A (thah-lah-SHAH) – the ancient name for the ruined capital on the coast near Hope Renewed citidome
- TIRAK (TEE-rahk) – an ancient flying vehicle of war
- UTZ’OS (OOT-zohs) – an old language curse word
- VI’IN (VEE-een) – road, path, way (plural: vi’i)
- VI’IN EXELISHIN (VEE-een ek-SELL-ee-sheen) – the main byway in the underground levels of Hope Renewed citidome
- YACUNOS/YACHIN (YAH-koo-nohs, yaχ*-EEN or YAKH-een) – beloved, sweetheart (romantic connotation)
- YAD/YADLAG (YAHD, YAHD-lahg) – an old language curse word
- YPRIS (yee-PREES) – hubris
* CH is pronounced as a voiceless uvular fricative. If this is too hard for you to say, KH is an acceptable substitute
Audio Pronunciation Guide
Want to actually hear these words spoken out loud rather than trying to sound them out phonetically? You can listen to me read these words in the video below! An audio guide to Iamoi character names is coming soon.
1) I tried to avoid rolling my Rs on these words to make it easier for English speakers to pronounce, but I noticed around halfway through I started rolling them more. Sorry! I’m Italian, I can’t help it! “Realistically” all these Rs would be rolled, but for English-speaking readers, it’s not necessary for correct pronunciation. If a hard R is easier for you to pronounce, that’s fine.
2) Since Iamos is (in the continuity of the series) supposed to be the origin of the Atlantis myth, which is primarily associated with ancient Greece, I tried to use Greek pronunciation as best as I could. However, I am not a Greek speaker, so I’m just working off my knowledge of pronunciation from college history/classics and introductory linguistics classes. Hopefully I managed to maintain consistency!
3) “Ch” (as in yachin) is meant to be pronounced like the Greek letter chi/χ, which is a voiceless uvular fricative. Like an “H” with a bunch of spit in your throat. If this is too hard for you, you will probably be closer pronouncing it like “kh” (which is how English tends to render “ch” from the Greek name Achilles, or how Italian renders the “ch” in my own name). It’s not ch/tʃ as in cherry.
4) “X” (as in Vi’in Exelishin) is supposed to be pronounced like the Greek letter xi/Ξ, which I believe is pronounced like “ks” when it’s in the middle of the word and like “z” only at the beginning of a word. So hopefully I pronounced Exelishin correctly in my own made-up language. 😂